A major migration crisis has been ongoing in European countries in the course of the last few years, with many of them struggling to cope with the growing influx of migrants.
Sweden embraced immigration and is undergoing a rapid change in the demographics of its population; now Prime Minister Stefan Löfven has threatened to sanction others who don't share the same attitude.
The most recent mapping of migrant crime was carried out in 2005, whereupon this practice was put on ice, as suggesting a connection between crime and a person's ethnicity or race was considered unethical. Meanwhile, there is no shortage of independent studies that have highlighted migrants' drastic over-representation in certain types of crime.
The traditional media's habit of toning down issues associated with immigration and belittling cultural clashes with Islam may result in decisive social changes happening outside of the media's focus, writer Ulf-Arvid Mejlænder has warned. This also allows politicians to continue with their "sleep-in-peace" soothing mantras, he said.
While accounting for 33 percent of Oslo's population, immigrants account for nearly 70 percent of violent crimes in Norway's capital, where victims are subject to serious bodily harm.
Almost half of Denmark's rapists are non-Western immigrants, an over-representation researchers attribute to cultural differences as well as a deep-rooted contempt for women.
Starting in 2020, immigrants to Norway must display a sufficient command of the Norwegian language in order to be entitled to social assistance. At present, immigrants are heavily over-represented in the list of welfare recipients.
Swedish Social Security Minister Annika Strandhäll has sparked an international spat by making Nazi references in connection with Hungary's family policy, which is intended to boost birth rates.
Amid a seething grooming gang scandal, the link between immigration and sex crimes has become a hot election issue in Finland. As a remedy, Finns would like to see harsher penalties and checks on immigration in place.
Starting from January, asylum seekers leaving Finland can receive up to 5,000 euros in cash or subsidies in what the Migration Service has dubbed the "cheapest option".
Parental concerns and security considerations are the reasons behind the ban on asylum seekers visiting schools in a Finnish city, where Finland's biggest sexual assault scandal is unravelling.
The large number of "paperless migrants" has caught the authorities and the government unawares, Finland's national broadcaster admitted. Recent research has attributed this to a unsuccessful combination of tougher immigration laws and failure to execute them.
In a spectacular u-turn by the Social Democrats, whose election pledge was to limit immigration, Sweden's new minority coalition government seeks to introduce a so-called humanitarian protection cause that will encompass "climate refugees".
For its "jewellery law" allowing police to confiscate valuables from incoming migrants, Denmark received a lot of flak and was even compared to Nazi Germany. However, having received tens of thousands of migrants in three years, Denmark hasn't confiscated a single piece of jewellery, which means the law was rather symbolic.
Despite what is often described as a "crackdown" on immigration, Denmark remains one of the most desirable countries for asylum seekers from across the world, contradicting attempts to portray it as an uninviting place.
While about 2 percent of Finland's rejected asylum seekers have been found to pose a security threat, the authorities are having trouble in locating them, as some have already left the country.
Amid a record-low fertility rate of 1.62 births per woman recorded last year, which makes the Scandinavian country increasingly rely on immigration to maintain its population, Norwegian right-wing MP Per Willy Amundsen has proposed measures to bolster ethnic Norwegians' demographics.
The migrant grooming gang scandal that shook Finland in late 2018 appears to have escalated, earning stern condemnation from Finnish President Sauli Niinistö and Prime Minister Juha Sipilä and triggering renewed calls to strip dual citizen sex criminals of Finnish citizenship.
The recent grooming scandal in northern Finland involving migrant gangs has spurred a debate on harsher penalties for non-Finnish sex criminals, with the Interior Ministry proposing a crackdown referring to the "Finnish sense of justice".
According to the Red Cross and other humanitarian organisations, underage migrants are often forced to sell sex in exchange for accommodation and other basic needs. Often, older people act as "sponsors", NGOs say.
In 2009, Norway was among Europe's most fruitful countries, with an estimated 1.98 children per woman. Since then, it has rapidly gone downhill, with fertility rates falling to an alarming 1.62 by 2017. Researchers have labelled the new trend toward smaller families as "Two is the new three".