Police in Delhi have clamped down on demonstrations by students and political activists. Several other Indian states have imposed similar restrictions.
Delhi's iconic Red Fort area and neighbouring old city areas have been sealed by police as a precautionary measure. Police frisked and screened people to stop protesters reaching the venue.
Hundreds of protesting students were taken into custody. But all efforts to disrupt the demonstrations proved to be in vain as the protesters managed to gather and chant slogans.
“We have come out to voice our dissent and when we are protesting peacefully then what is the problem?” said one of the protesters outside the Red Fort.
Another said: “If you want to live in this country, it is important to remember the constitution. If India cannot become an Islamic nation or Khalistan (nation for Sikh community), then it can definitely not become a Hindu nation. We will not let this happen. We will fight against it.”
Police personnel in the Mandi House area in central Delhi outnumbered the protesters. Meanwhile, on social media, activists shared the phone numbers of lawyers for legal aid required by the detained protesters.
Political analyst Tehseen Poonawala said: "I was alone when I was detained and I was not even told why I have been detained. I want to tell Modi and Amit Shah that I will come out eventually. It is my right to protest and it can't be curbed. They cannot decide for us."
Since last week, widespread protests have been taking place across India over the newly enacted Citizenship Amendment Act that provides citizenship to Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Christians who faced religious persecution from Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan and arrived before December 31, 2014.