"Today, on January 28, the men and women of our valiant Armed Forces demonstrated that their morale was high in the face of continued attacks by American imperialism. Our duty is to protect Venezuela," the statement published on the ministry's Twitter account read.
The ministry also posted a video showing soldiers, led by Defence Minister Vladimir Padrino Lopez, marching on a street.
Maduro has accused the United States of orchestrating the coup in Venezuela and announced his decision to cut diplomatic ties with Washington, describing Guaido as US officials' puppet.
On Sunday, US National Security Adviser John Bolton said that any violence in Venezuela against US diplomatic staff, Guaido or the opposition-run National Assembly would be met with a "significant response."