"The actions of the coalition's pilots, if, as we hope, had not been taken upon the order from Washington, are on the brink of criminal negligence and direct connivance with IS [Daesh] terrorists," the ministry said in a statement.
The attacks by the coalition planes near the Deir ez-Zor airport were first reported by the Syrian army on Saturday. The Russian Defense Ministry confirmed the attacks saying they killed 62 servicemen and injured 100 more.
Washington later admitted the attacks saying Syrian troops were mistaken for Daesh militants.
"We urge our US partners to conduct…a thorough investigation and take measures to avoid any future incidents of the kind. In this regard, we regret that the United States took an unconstructive and inarticulate stance at the urgent UNSC meeting called by Russia," the ministry said in a statement.
"US representatives not only failed to adequately explain their actions but tried, as usual, to turn everything on its head," it continued.
The Russian Foreign Ministry again urged Washington to use its influence on the so-called moderate opposition forces on the ground and pressure them into carrying out their obligations under the terms of the truce that was brokered by Moscow and Washington in Geneva last week.
"Otherwise, the implementation of the entire complex of US-Russian arrangements, agreed in Geneva on September 9, will be in danger, which is contrary to the interests of the international community," the Ministry warned in a statement.