The Supreme Court said in a statement that the politicians Henry Ramos Allup, Luis Florido, Marianela Magallanes, José Simón Calzadilla, Américo De Grazia, and Richard Blanco, as well as Andrés Velázquez were accused by the attorney general for the alleged crimes of "treason, conspiracy, instigation of insurrection, military rebellion, conspiracy to commit a crime, usurpation of functions, and public incitement to disobedience".
The Supreme Court approved a similar process last week against the vice president of the National Assembly, Edgar Zambrano.
The decision comes after Guaido tried to convince the Venezuelan people and military to take to the streets to oust Maduro from power on 30 April. However, the attempt to overthrow the president failed.
Maduro, supported by China and Russia, among numerous other countries, has blamed the United States for seeking to overthrow his government and install Guaido in a bid to get hold of Venezuela's natural resources.