Despite the government's attempts to quell the crowds and now-fulfilled promises to decrease prices, peaceful protests turned into violent clashes with law enforcement officers, as well as looting, arson and acts of terrorism across Kazakhstan.
According to the country's Interior Ministry, 17 law enforcement officers were killed.
Foreign militants, including some recruited from Afghanistan and the Middle East, have participated in the aggression against Kazakhstan, Kazakh President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev said on Monday.
The State Secretary of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Erlan Karin, said that the unrest in Kazakhstan was a "hybrid terrorist" attack carried out with the participation of both internal and external forces and aimed at overthrowing the government.
After violence followed, Kazakh President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev declared a nationwide state of emergency, effective until 19 January, and invited Collective Security Treaty Organisation peacekeeping forces to help bring the situation under control and help eliminate "the terrorist threat".
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