The parliament held a third round of voting for Kubatbek Baibolov, a member of the opposition bloc in parliament and the winner of the previous voting rounds for the post of speaker, vacated by Omurbek Tekebayev.
Baibolov received support from 34 members of parliament out of the 62 legislators present, falling short by four votes.
The Kyrgyz parliament is expected to resume the vote for a speaker on March 2.
Tekebayev initially tendered his resignation February 10 amid an ongoing political confrontation in one of the poorest former Soviet republics. The move caused mixed emotions among politicians in the country, and some said it could result in the dissolution of parliament, which refused to consider the resignation immediately because it could have paralyzed the legislature.
The speaker later re-submitted his resignation, which was again declined. Tekebayev then said he had the right to resign under the country's Labor Code.
Tekebayev had been accused of "non-parliamentary" remarks about the president, who, he said, had "disgraced himself."
His remarks came following President Kurmanbek Bakiyev, who came to power after a popular uprising last year, criticized the speaker and parliament in general for blocking crucial legislative initiatives, including privatization bills and a draft budget, February 3. Bakiyev said the legislature had turned into a "scene for political bickering" and created instability in the country.
In his letter of resignation, Tekebayev said the country's president and prime minister publicly refused to implement their campaign promises.
"All of the people were witnesses to the promises of the tandem, and today they are publicly abandoning them [the promises]," the speaker said. "Those who constantly remind them [of their promises] are being persecuted."