The conference, to be held under the auspices of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), is to focus on joint efforts to counteract terrorism and the drug trade in the war-ravaged Central Asian state.
The SCO is a regional security group that comprises Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. Russia took over the presidency of the organization last August. Iran, India, Mongolia and Pakistan have observer status within the organization.
During his visit to Afghanistan, Lavrov is scheduled to meet with Afghan President Hamid Karzai and the heads of the country's two houses of parliament, as well as the interior and foreign ministers.
The Russian foreign minister will also take part in the opening of an exhibition of documents to mark the 90th anniversary of Russia's recognition of Afghanistan.