"Toxic substances in the air exceed the maximum allowable concentrations in 185 cities with a population of over 61 million people, or 44% of Russia's population," the report says.
Air pollution is responsible for 17% of diseases in children and 10% in adults.
The report also said that emissions of carbon dioxide by Russian power stations are expected to increase 46.8% from 2002 levels by 2010, reaching 690,200 tons.
In 2002-2020, emissions will grow by 57.2%, to 739,300 tons.
Russia has about 300 thermal power stations, most of which are fueled by natural gas.