Igor Reshetin, the chief executive of Tsniimash-Export, a producer of rockets and missiles working closely with the Russian Space Agency, was found guilty on all charges, including smuggling intellectual property and misappropriating funds.
The other three defendants in the criminal case were sentenced to five to 11 years.
Investigators said Reshetin and his co-accused had transferred knowhow that could be used to design nuclear missiles to China Precision Machinery Import-Export Corporation (CPMIEC), causing losses to Russia of 110 million rubles ($4.5 million).
Tsniimash, which was licensed by the Russian Federal Aerospace Agency in 1996, faced similar allegations in 2005, and CPMIEC has been subject to U.S. sanctions under the Iran Non-Proliferation Act since mid-2003.
Founded in 1991, Tsniimash-Export has fulfilled more than 120 contracts for aerospace companies and firms in the U.S., China and other countries.
Analysts have said Russian technology might have formed the basis of China's manned space program.
Reshetin's lawyer said Monday the defense would appeal the verdict.