Saddam was convicted last month of crimes against humanity and sentenced to death by hanging.
"The execution [of Saddam Hussein] will fuel civil war in Iraq and escalate Jihadism,"
Mikhail Margelov, head of the Russian upper house International Affairs Committee, said.
He said he backs the Council of Europe's stance that the death penalty is unacceptable and contradicts European moral standards. The UN human rights watchdog also urged Iraq to refrain from executing Hussein.
The head of the Russian lower house's International Affairs Committee, Konstantin Kosachyov, said the execution will result in a new interethnic and religious war in Iraq and could lead to the disintegration of the country into several states.
Deputy commission chairman Leonid Slutsky said Saddam's execution will also lead to the destabilization of the Middle East.
Saddam Hussein was sentenced to death November 5 for the 1982 reprisal slayings of 148 Shiite Muslims from a town where assassins tried to kill the former Iraqi leader. The sentence was upheld on appeal December 26.