China's foreign ministry said that US policy regarding Taiwan severely damages peace and stability for China-US relations and the Taiwan Strait.
The ministry expressed its strong indignation and condemned the US for Pompeo's call with Taiwan's Tsai Ing-wen.
The US call to Taiwan violates the promise it made and sent wrong signal to "Taiwan independence" forces, the ministry added.
Earlier, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo slammed the World Health Organisation's decision to postpone the discussion on granting Taiwan observer status in the agency, despite multiple calls from the US.
In turn, Beijing strongly opposes Taiwan's bid to gain an observer status at the WHO, saying the attempt it as a violation of the "One China" policy.
China considers Taiwan a part of its territory, and maintains its right to one day reunite the island with the mainland. Taiwan split from mainland China in during the Chinese Civil War in 1949.