"China resolutely opposes forced technology transfer and is taking decisive measures against theft of intellectual property. Accusations of forced technology transfer against China are groundless and untenable," the document said.
China, however, welcomes and respects voluntary cooperation in technology between Chinese and foreign companies, which are based on market principles, according to the white paper.
"China's economic development has benefited from international transfer and spread of technology. Owners of these technologies have also benefited from this process," Beijing added, arguing that historical records confirmed that the country’s achievements in science and technology had not been stolen or forcibly taken from others but achieved thanks to the country's own efforts and hard work.
Finally, the document stressed that China, guided by relevant international rules, had created legislation to protect intellectual property rights.
For nearly a year, the two countries have been entangled in a trade war, with Washington accusing Beijing of technology theft and other unjust trade practices to advance its high-tech sector and to build military and economic capabilities. Last year, the United States even filed a relevant appeal with the World Trade Organisation.