The task force includes the missile frigate Dagestan, as well as the missile corvettes Sviyazhsk, Uglich and Velikiy Ustyug.
"Currently, the warships' crews are preparing for the next stage of a combat mission in the Caspian Sea, in accordance with the military training program," the press service said.
Last week, the four warships launched 18 cruise missiles at Islamic State targets in Syria.
Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu said that the missiles destroyed a total of seven targets in the Syrian provinces of Raqqa, Idlib and Aleppo.
He added that "during the aerial operation, cruise missiles were launched from the Mediterranean and Caspian Seas over a distance of up to 1,500 km, and aircraft took off from Russian and Syrian airfields."
According to Shoigu, ten ships are involved in Russia's military operations in Syria; six of them are currently deployed in the Mediterranean Sea.
Syrian Ambassador to Russia Riad Haddad confirmed that Syrian Army strikes, supported by the Russian Aerospace Forces, were being carried out against armed terrorist organizations, not political opposition factions or civilians.