The first two cases took place in the North Caucasus Republic of Chechnya, which suffered two devastating separatist wars in the 1990s-early 2000s. Both cases were brought by people who said their relatives had disappeared in 2002 after being detained by Russian troops.
In the first case, Russian authorities claim the missing man was abducted by Chechen militants driving a vehicle stolen from federal troops. In the second case, they said the five people concerned were released the day after being detained.
The applicants in the third case alleged that they were tortured in the republic of Ingushetia by Ministry of the Interior officers and Russian servicemen in order to force them to confess to involvement in paramilitary groups.
After looking into the complaints, the court found that Russia had breached a number of articles under the European Convention on Human Rights, including the right to life and effective investigation, and articles on torture, inhumane conduct, and the right to freedom.
The court ruled Russia should pay 286,000 euros to the claimants and 18,658 euros in court costs. The ruling comes into effect in three months if neither side appeals.
Around 20% of all complaints made to the Court in the past decade have involved Russia.