The bombardment, which was in breach of a ceasefire in place for about 10 days, was a response to a Palestinian bomb attack on Tuesday in which an Israeli soldier was killed and another three wounded.
Tuesday's incident happened on the Israeli side of the border near the Kissufim crossing in central Gaza despite the unilateral ceasefires declared by each side on January 18 that ended the Israeli three-week offensive on Gaza, which has been under control of the radical Islamic movement Hamas since June 2007.
Israel launched its attack on December 27, targeting Hamas infrastructure in a bid to put an end to rocket attacks by Palestinian militants on Israeli border towns.
The military operation left at least 1,284 Palestinians dead, according to the Palestinian Center for Human Rights. Up to 50,000 people have also been left homeless in the enclave of 1.5 million. Israel's casualties have been estimated at 13, including 10 military personnel.