Yamazaki, 37, will become the second Japanese woman to go to space after Chiaki Mukai, who went in 1994 and 1998, and Japan's seventh astronaut overall, the agency said.
The Japanese astronaut will be part of a two-week mission to bring and install new lab equipment on board the ISS.
Yamazaki was selected by JAXA as one of three Japanese astronaut candidates for the ISS in February 1999. She attended the ISS Astronaut Basic Training program starting in April 1999, and was certified as an astronaut in September 2001.
In May 2004, she completed Soyuz-TMA Flight Engineer-1 training at the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City, near Moscow.
Yamazaki, mother of a six-year-old girl, told a news conference in Tokyo on Tuesday: "My daughter is starting to understand about space and space shuttles... She told me 'Now, you'll be the one to ride that, mummy. I'm very happy'".