"This terrorist network, with links to the U.S., planned an explosion at the Russian consulate in Rasht, aiming to create a rift between Iran and its neighbors," Qolam Hosein Mohseni-Ejei was quoted by Fars news agency as saying.
The minister, speaking at a session of Iranian prosecutors, did not provide any details of the operation.
Moscow and Tehran enjoy warm relations amid the pressure from the West on Iran over its controversial nuclear program. Russia is a key economic partner of Iran, and is building the country's first nuclear power plant in Bushehr.
On May 7, the day Dmitry Medvedev took office as Russia's president, Iran's ambassador to Russia said: "Vladimir Putin's presidency was a golden period in Iran-Russia relations."
Shortly before leaving office, Putin signed a decree implementing UN Security Council Resolution 1803 imposing new sanctions against Iran over its refusal to halt uranium enrichment. However, the three rounds of sanctions so far imposed against Iran have been relatively mild, due to Russia and China's refusal to accept harsh reprisals against the Islamic Republic.