The drilling technology, which involves pumping a highly-toxic mix of chemicals into the ground at high pressure to break up rocks and release natural gas and crude oil, has been surrounded with controversy amid evidence that it pollutes ground water and causes earthquakes.
The US government will unveil new fracking rules on Friday requiring drilling companies to disclose what the chemicals are used. The regulations will also set standards for well digging and the disposal of wastewater, according to US Interior Secretary Sally Jewell.
She noted some people in the industry have already described the regulations as "overly burdensome," but added "most Americans would call them common sense."
The regulations will only apply to fracking operations on public lands.
"The responsibility for developing this energy safely must now be taken up in state capitals, engineering labs, and board rooms all across the country," the interior policy chief stated.
The long-delayed fracking regulations are the first attempt by the US government to lay down guidelines for the young industry. The rules have been in the works since 2012, as the administration of US President Barack Obama tried to balance support for a technology which offered temporary petrochemical energy independence with environmental concerns.