The lift-off took place at 11:56 p.m. (15:56 GMT) on Thursday from the Xichang space center in the southwest of China. The satellite will be connected to the navigation system after undergoing a number of checks.
The BeiDou system is designed as a rival to GPS in the United States, Glonass in Russia and Galileo in the European Union.
The Chinese space exploration program has said that the BeiDou system would provide services to the countries located along the so-called New Silk Road initiative, started by China in cooperation with other regional players, in 2018. Beijing also plans that the system will operate worldwide in 2020.