The video, first released by Channel 5, shows a car transporter truck carrying a vehicle covered by a thin camouflage material.
Based on the vehicle's shape and size, as well as the carrier's number indicating that it belongs to the Federal Protective Service that guards the Kremlin, the mysterious car may be a Cortege limousine designed for the Russian president.
The Cortege project, created at Putin's initiative, has been in development since 2012.
"An enormous amount of work has been done; we've analyzed all most promising design solutions, technologies and trends in the global automotive industry," Russian Industry and Trade Minister Denis Manturov said in an interview with Sputnik earlier this year.
In addition to the presidential limousine, the project envisions the creation of a whole lineup of executive cars.
"Manufactured cars, except for those intended for senior government officials, will be put on sale," Manturov said.
The vehicles are designed by the Moscow-based Central Scientific Research Automobile & Engine Institute (NAMI). It was initially hoped the Cortege cars would debut at the inauguration ceremony after this year's presidential elections in Russia, but they are not yet in service.