"The organizing committee of the March of Dissent has declared January 31 the "Day of Dissent" in Moscow," Alexander Averin said.
A number of rallies will begin simultaneously across Moscow at 2:00 p.m. (11:00 GMT) to demand the resignation of the government.
The Other Russia coalition, an umbrella group of opposition parties that includes chess grandmaster Garry Kasparov's United Civil Front, has accused the government of failing to tackle the consequences of the current financial crisis.
The protesters will also demand that the constitutional rights of Russians, including the freedom of assembly, be respected, Averin said.
A spokesman said organizers of the individual rallies would decide for themselves whether to apply for permission from the authorities.
The most recent opposition marches were held in Moscow and St. Petersburg on December 14. In downtown Moscow more than 90 people were arrested for trying to hold an unauthorized opposition rally, while in St. Petersburg some 60 people were detained.