The deal was signed by Venezuelan Energy and Petroleum Minister Rafael Dario Ramirez Carreno and Rosatom head Sergei Kiriyenko on Wednesday in the presence of Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and his Venezuelan counterpart Hugo Chavez.
The document provides a framework for cooperation in thermonuclear fusion, the safety of nuclear facilities and radiation sources, as well as the design, development, construction, operation and decommissioning of research reactors and nuclear power plants.
It also deals with the use of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, and agriculture, the prospecting and development of uranium deposits, and the development of nuclear infrastructure.
Dmitry Medvedev arrived in the Venezuelan capital late on Wednesday for a two-day visit, the first by a Russian head of state for 150 years.
The two countries also signed a 25-year intergovernmental agreement on cooperation in oil, gas and power generation.