Ukrainian-born Kurylenko, 28, stars in the new James Bond film, Quantum of Solace, alongside English actor Daniel Craig.
"In the name of all communists we appeal to you, Olga Kurylenko, wanton daughter of unclean Ukraine and deserter of the Slavic world. The Soviet Union educated you, cared for you, and brought you up for free, but no one suspected that you would commit this act of intellectual and moral betrayal," the St. Petersburg-based KPLO group's statement read, going on to call James Bond "the killer of hundreds of Soviet people and their allies."
Ukraine is a former Soviet republic. However, in recent years, its Western-leaning leadership has sought membership of the NATO military alliance. The majority of Ukrainians are against NATO membership, and the July NATO-Ukraine military exercises in the Odessa, Crimea and Black Sea coastal regions were met by large and at times violent protests.
"Your peers are engaged in struggles against NATO and you lounge around on the Cote d'Azur. How could you desert your homeland in its moment of need? Do you really want Crimean girls to be raped by cruel and stupid American marines?" the statement also read.
"Do you know what they did with women who welcomed the occupiers in the Great Patriotic War? Where is your patriotism?" the statement also read. It was signed by a number of communist local MPs and party members.
Kurylenko was born in Ukraine's Sea of Azov region and was discovered by a talent scout in the Moscow subway when she was still a teenager. She has not commented on the "traitor" accusations.