Vladimir Putin and Manmohan Singh oversaw the signing of the deals by government officials of the two countries in the Kremlin. A preliminary deal to build a multipurpose aircraft was secured in January during then defense minister Sergei Ivanov's visit to New Delhi.
Negotiations on Monday also yielded an agreement to expand the use of India's repayments of debt to Russia, much of which dates back to the Soviet era.
Moscow and New Delhi previously said they planned to invest part of India's rupee debt to Russia, the equivalent of $1 billion, in building the multi-purpose transport aircraft and in a joint venture to produce titanium, widely used in military-oriented products.
Singh said Russia and India were drawing up an agreement on building four nuclear reactors in Koodankulam in southern India. A memorandum on the project was signed during President Putin's visit to India in January.
In the run-up to the meeting, the two countries also signed an agreement to set up three joint research centers for non-ferrous metals, biomedical technologies, accelerators and lasers.