President Vladimir Putin put forward Kolesov's candidacy two weeks after dismissing Leonid Korotkov as governor on May 10.
"The chairman of the Council of People's Deputies of the Amur Region has received a letter from the Russian President, signed May 24, in which Vladimir Putin nominates Nikolai Kolesov for the post of governor," a local MP told RIA Novosti.
The president's press service confirmed the nomination.
Prosecutors in the Amur Region, which borders on China, accused Korotkov of abuse of office and negligence on May 2. If found guilty, he could face large fines and up to seven years in prison, prosecutors said.
Korotkov's actions caused 123 million rubles ($4.8 million) in losses for the Far Eastern region, the prosecutors said.
He was accused of raising electricity rates to illegally bankroll the local soccer team, buying vehicles at inflated prices, and paying 16 million rubles ($620,000) to a mining company for a controlling stake that was never transferred to the regional government.
Vladimir Putin earlier signed another decree to appoint Alexander Nesterenko, deputy governor of the region, as acting governor.
Nikolai Kolesov, 51, is a member of parliament of the Volga republic of Tatarstan and the general director of the Elecon plant, a leading Russian manufacturer of electrical connectors. He holds a doctorate degree in economics.