"The minister noted the importance of Kiev's direct dialogue with Donetsk and Luhansk, including ending the hostilities in the Debaltsevo area as soon as possible," the ministry said in a statement.
The phone talk was held on a US initiative.
Later in the day, the leaders of Russia, Ukraine, Germany and France — the members of the so-called Normandy Quartet that worked out the Donbas truce deal last week are expected to discuss the current situation in eastern Ukraine by phone.
Earlier on Wednesday, Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko said the operation to withdraw Kiev troops from the encirclement in Debaltsevo had been completed.
Lavrov and Kerry also discussed "other issues, including Syrian reconciliation and the schedule of possible bilateral contacts," the statement reads.
Between January 26 and 29, Moscow hosted intra-Syrian talks between representatives of the Syrian government and the opposition in a bid to find a solution to the Syrian conflict that erupted in 2011.