In his opinion, the complexity of ratification consists in the different approaches to the protocol within the Russian elite. "A ratification intends political consensus. There are now different points of view in the political elite, the deputy corps and the scientific circles", Chizhov said.
The Kyoto Protocol was adopted by consensus at the 3rd conference of the parties to the UN framework climate modification convention in the old Japanese capital Kyoto in December 1997. Under the protocol, by 2008-2012 industrialised nations are to cut their greenhouse gases emission by at least 5 percent from the 1990 level. The Kyoto Protocol will come into force 90 days upon its ratification by at least 55 member states of the convention, including developed countries, which account for at least 55 percent of the total carbon dioxide emission by this group of countries.
The Russian Federation has signed but not ratified the protocol. In case it doesn't, the protocol will not become effective since, following the United States' withdrawal from the protocol in 2002, the total emission, without Russia, by the other developed countries will be less than 55 percent.
In October 2003 the world climatic modification conference gathered in Moscow. Vladimir Putin told it that Russia was not ready to ratify the Kyoto Protocol.