The Colorado Springs exercise had, for its principal goal, streamlining essential provisions of CONOPS, experimental operation concept, and a joint Russia-NATO experimental concept of theater air defense, as elaborated within the two preceding years.
The Colorado Springs event involved more than sixty NATO countries' and Russian experts. The NATO International Military Staff and an enlarged air defense group - of Germany, the USA and the Netherlands - were represented.
The games included computer modeling, and command and troop control streamlining.
An anti-missile defense alliance ushers in upgraded Russia-NATO contacts, which started with a Declaration of Rome, signed in 2002. Our Russian informants regard this alliance as part and parcel of global anti-terror efforts.