MOSCOW, September 13 (RIA Novosti) — A number of events are scheduled in Moscow on Friday, to mark the 60th anniversary of the Moscow Air Defense District, established on August 20, 1954, which had evolved by now into the Order of Lenin Air and Missile Defense Command of the Aerospace Defense Forces (ADF).
The history of Moscow's air defense began much earlier, though. It is believed to have been born on April 25, 1918, when the military supervisor of the Moscow District issued Order No. 1 establishing the Moscow Air Defense Directorate under the command of a former Imperial Army officer, Capt. Nikolai Enden.
On the eve of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, all air defense facilities were merged into the Moscow Air Defense Zone, headed by Maj. Gen. Mikhail Gromadin. In 1942, the Zone was converted into the Moscow Air Defense Front, while in 1943 it was transformed into the Special Moscow Air Defense Army under Artillery Lt. Gen. Daniil Zhuravlyov. After the war, the Moscow Air Defense District was formed, which was later turned into the Moscow Air Defense Region.
On August 20, 1954, the Moscow Air Defense Region was transformed into the Moscow Air Defense District. This was a pivotal moment in the building of the future air defense system for central Russia and its capital.
On February 22, 1968, the Moscow Air Defense District was awarded the Order of Lenin.
In 1980, after the Baku District was disbanded, the Moscow Air Defense District remained the only structure of its kind in the USSR. In 1998, it joined the Air Force and became the Moscow Air Force and Air Defense District. Air Force Lt. Gen. Gennady Vasilyev was appointed Commander of the District.
On September 1, 2002, the Directorate of the Order of Lenin Moscow Air Force and Air Defense District was reorganized into the Directorate of the Order of Lenin Special Force Command, with Lt. Gen. Yury Solovyov as its commander. In 2008, Lt. Gen. Sergei Razygrayev was appointed Commander of the Special Force Command.
On June 1, 2009, the Directorates of the Order of Lenin Special Force Command and the First Air Defense Corps were reorganized into the Directorate of the Order of Lenin Operational-Strategic Aerospace Defense Command (OSC ASD), headquartered in Balashikha, Moscow Region. In 2010, Lt. Gen. Valery Ivanov was appointed its commander. On December 1, 2011, the Order of Lenin OSC ASD Directorate was used as the basis for establishing the Directorate of the Order of Lenin Air and Missile Defense Command of the Aerospace Defense Forces (AMD-ASD).
Maj. Gen. Andrei Dyomin was appointed the AMD-ASD Commander by a Presidential Executive Order of December 2, 2013.
At present, AMD-ASD forces defend about 1,500 kilometers of air space along the state border of the Russian Federation, and monitor its use. They protect 260 defense facilities, which account for over 30% of all the defense facilities for the Armed Forces, as specified by an executive order of the Russian President.
Over 1,500 on-duty officers and civilian personnel of the AMD-ASD Command of the ASD Forces are on operational readiness daily. Every day AMD-ASD service members conduct radar detection and tracking of up to 800 aircraft, 90 of which are continuously monitored, with data sent to the command post of the Aerospace Defense Forces.