"All the excavations that threaten the foundations of the Al-Aqsa Mosque are completely unacceptable and must be stopped. Any measures that would change the religious and historical status [of the mosque] will only lead to further deterioration of the situation and escalation," the Palestinian leader said in a statement, as quoted by the WAFA news agency.
Abbas convened an urgent governmental meeting on Friday to discuss the issue.
The Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock, which have been built on ruins of Jewish temples, are considered to be Islam's third holiest sites. Friday prayers in these mosques bring together thousands of Muslims.
The conflicts surrounding the Temple Mount have triggered numerous escalations of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.