According to the police, the attack on the worshippers took place in the village of Kalai Mahmud of the Shindand district.
The reports say six people were killed and six more injured.
Earlier, Afghan President Ashraf Ghani has declared a ceasefire with the Taliban radical movement starting on June 11 to mark Eid al-Fitr and the end of the Islamic holy month of Ramadan.
Several explosions have rocked Afghanistan in recent month, killing dozens of people, and injuring hundreds of civilians.
Afghanistan has been suffering from unstable political, social and security situation for years, due to the simmering militant insurgency, including that of Daesh* and Taliban*.
*Daesh (also known as ISIS/ISIL/IS) and Taliba are terrorist groups banned in Russia