Erdogan's strongest-ever verbal attack on the jihadist group came amid criticism that Ankara is doing little to defend against the Islamic State advance on the Turkish border.
Speaking after a meeting with Iraqi President Fuad Masum earlier in the day, Erdogan said that Islamic State militants must be confronted.
"An international strategy is essential to drain this swamp. Even if Daesh [ISIL] is destroyed something will emerge under a different name," he added.
He also stressed the importance of focusing on preventing the Islamic State from being armed and sponsored.
Turkey has repeatedly denied the accusations that it initially supported the Islamic State as an alleged ally in the fight to overthrow Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.