The rally marked the fourth anniversary of the start of anti-government protests on February 14, 2011, the media said.
Protesters mostly from Shia Muslim majority of the country demanded a "real" constitutional monarchy with a prime minister independent from the Sunni royal family, according to the broadcaster.
The demonstrators also called for the release of Sheikh Ali Salman, the leader of the largest Shiite opposition party Al-Wefaq, who was arrested in last December on charges of inciting a violent regime change through illegal practices.
Bahraini police used tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse the rally.
Since 2011, Bahrain has been mired in Shia Muslim uprisings against its Sunni leaders. Shia Muslims, who form a majority in Bahrain, initiated the protests to achieve greater political freedom and equality as they claimed the regime under the Sunni Al Khalifa royal family infringes upon their rights. The protests resulted in brutal crackdowns on the opposition.