The edition, which goes on sale Wednesday, depicts Erdogan sitting in an armchair half-dressed, with a drink can in his hand. The cartoon also shows the character depicting the Turkish president lifting the dress of a woman interpreted to have given him the drink, exposing her bare rear.
The image contains the caption "Erdogan is very playful in his private life."
Tensions have risen between France and Turkey after Erdogan raised the issue of the comments made by French President Emmanuel Macron on radical Islam following the death of teacher Samuel Paty at the hands of a radicalized teen.
Paty had reportedly shown cartoons depicting the Islamic prophet Mohammad in class, causing outrage among Muslim students.
Erdogan has called on Turkish citizens to boycott French goods after Macron pledged to step up efforts against radicalization and refused to renounce caricatures that could be interpreted as offensive.
Charlie Hebdo has previously published cartoons depicting the prophet Mohammad. In 2015, two Muslim terrorists broke into the magazine's office and opened fire, killing 12 and injuring 11 others.