19:47 GMT16 February 2020
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    Most penis enlargement procedures in the UK are carried out by private health providers - the NHS only provides the service for clinical rather than cosmetic reasons, such as repairing a body affected by trauma.

    Penis enlargement procedures don't work and are "ineffective and risky", leaving many who undergo the surgery physically and/or psychologically scarred afterwards, a study published in the Sexual Medicine Reviews journal has revealed.

    The analysis was conducted by a team of researchers at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience at King's College London, led by urogolist Gordon Muir — it concludes they should almost never be carried out, and "vulnerable" men were "preyed on" and exploited by "charlatans", as there was "scant" evidence the range of procedures men undergo in a bid to enlarge their private parts actually produce that result.

    The treatments were also found to carry a high risk of complications, including permanent numbness.

    ​"[The review] found overall treatment outcomes were poor, with low satisfaction rates and significant risk of major complications, including penile deformity, shortening, and erectile dysfunction…They can cost up to £40,000, often the man ends up with a penis that is disfigured and there's no more than 20 percent satisfaction rates with these procedures. The vast majority of men who may wish to have their penis made longer have a penis of completely normal length, but often feel their penis is too small," said Muir.

    ​"Many men who wish to undergo penis enlargement procedures have an average-sized penis but believe their size to be inadequate. Sadly, some clinics seem to ignore this. Surgeons in the private sector shouldn't do this. It's wrong on every level," Muir continued.

    The researchers reviewed 17 previous studies which assessed 21 different types of procedure, both surgical and non-surgical, performed on 1,192 patients in Britain and abroad.

    The two most common procedures involve injections of dermal fillers into the penis and an operation called 'suspensory ligament incision', in which the surgeon makes a cut above the penis and divides the ligament anchoring it. It's unknown how many men seek the treatment in the UK, let alone worldwide, but the paper suggests many patients suffer from body dysmorphic disorder or penile dysfunction disorder, both of which entail obsessive dissatisfaction with their appearance.


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    penis surgery, penis enlargement, penis, penis transplant, United Kingdom
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