Gaburici was nominated to the post after parliament failed to approve the candidacy of Iurie Leanca.
Leanca, who served as prime minister of Moldova from late spring 2013, navigated a thin line between European integration and relations with Russia during his term.
In June 2014, Leanca's government approved EU association and free trade pacts, while maintaining the membership of the Commonwealth of Independent States Free Trade Area that it had held since October 2011.
Gaburici, 38, served as CEO of Azercell from September 2012 to January 5, 2015. Prior to leading Azerbaijan's telecom provider, he served as CEO of Chisinau-based Moldcell. Both companies operate under the Swedish giant TeliaSonera's umbrella.
The newly-elected prime minister announced in the single-chamber legislative body that European integration will remain the Moldovan government's priority.