14:10 GMT +329 March 2017
    On Friday Russia marks the 97th anniversary of the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution that started the Soviet era

    February Revolution of 1917: Good Intentions, Tragic Fates?

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    Dmitry Babich
    Flashback to 1917: The Stories of the Russian Revolution (8)

    Nicholas Daniloff, 82, the founder of the School of Journalism at Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusets, and a former Moscow correspondent for the magazine US News & World Report, is one of very few Americans who have a personal connection to the February Revolution in Russia.

    In 1917, this revolution, which was a combination of a popular uprising with an elitist anti-monarchist plot, toppled emperor Nicholas II and paved the way for almost a century of "troubled times" in Russia.

    Nicholas Daniloff
    © Photo:
    Nicholas Daniloff

    When Nicholas Daniloff was born in a Russian émigré’s home in Paris in 1934, his grandfather Yuri Daniloff, a former czarist general and the head of the Russian army’s headquarters during the World War I, was still alive and had two more years to live. Isolated both from his now Bolshevist Russian motherland and from the majority of his fellow émigré officers, general Yuri Daniloff did not lead a happy life in France.

    The reason for isolation from the largely monarchist Russian émigré community in Paris was general Daniloff's participation in the abdication of Nicholas II on March 2, 1917. The emperor took that decision at the insistence of the army's top generals, including Danilov, after a series of rebellions in Petrograd and Moscow on February 23-March 1.

    The generals later said that by forcing Nicholas II to resign they wanted to prevent even bigger troubles, ensuring a smooth transition of state power to the czar's relatives or to the State Duma, the parliament, which was then dominated by anti-monarchist liberals. However, the situation quickly slipped out of the liberals' control, the liberal Provisional Government in October 1917 was toppled by the extremist Bolshevist faction of the Social-Democrat party and a bloody civil war followed in 1918-1921, with 70 more years of communist rule.

    "My father Serge, the general's son, lived in the United States a life of a refugee. In early 1917, the Provisional Government sent Serge on a diplomatic mission to Europe, but after the Bolshevist coup he did not want to serve this "new Russia," Nicholas Daniloff remembers. "The members of the mission divided its funds among themselves and went different ways. So, thanks to the February revolution I became an American and later worked as a foreign correspondent in Moscow in the early 1960s and in 1979-1986 – against the will of my father, who said even my American passport might not protect me."

    Speaking Russian like a native, Daniloff retains a somewhat distanced and critical approach to his historic motherland. In a curious way, this attitude reflects the divisions that to this day plague Russia when the February revolution is mentioned. "I agree with [a nineteenth century French critic of Russian monarchy marquis Astolphe] de Custine when he said back in 1840 that Russia was doomed to following the West, but never quite catching up with it," Daniloff told me during our first meeting in 1991. "Will this new attempt by Russia to make it (Daniloff meant Gorbachev's perestroika – D.B.) be successful? Russia already had the Great Reform of 1861, the February revolution of 1917. These attempts were well-intentioned, but never quite successful."

    In Russia, Daniloff's largely positive view of the February revolution's intentions is shared by the pro-Western Yabloko party, whose leader Grigory Yavlinsky supports the return of Crimea to Ukraine and views the expansion of the European Union to Russia's borders as a positive phenomenon.

    "The people who suddenly found themselves having power in February 1917 were educated and honest men, they didn't deceive their country, did not rob it of its riches," Yavlinsky wrote in an article dedicated to the anniversary of the revolution, whose centenary is coming on February 23. "They just lacked the needed experience of running the state affairs, they had been denied this experience by the authoritarian czarist regime."

    Vyacheslav Nikonov, dean of the history department of the Moscow State University, has a more negative view both of the February revolution and of its leaders. "The people who held power between February and October 1917 were irresponsible and unpatriotic. The first thing they did after coming to power was to liquidate the police department at the interior ministry, a step that led to a quick rise in violent crime and extremism. The old czarist governors were all dismissed or even arrested, without clear guidelines being given as to how the citizens should elect the new governors.

    All of these actions paved the way for the extremist Bolshevik party, which ultimately seized power that was lying on the street in October 1917," Nikonov said at a conference in Moscow dedicated to the February revolution. "There can be no feeling of pride associated with the February events and the subsequent abdication of the czar Nicholas II. Rather, we should remember these events with a feeling of regret or even shame. The czar fell victim to an elitist conspiracy which he failed to prevent."

    Nicholas II and all of his family were executed by the Bolsheviks in 1918, a little more than a year after the February revolution. Most of the military participants of the anti-Nicholas plot (including general Nikolay Ruzsky, who had the immediate influence on Nicholas during the latter's abdication) were killed by the "revolutionary masses" already in 1917-1918.

    The politicians involved in the anti-monarchist conspiracy at least since 1915 (Duma leaders Pavel Milyukov and prince Georgy Lvov, industrialist Alexander Konovalov) later lived more or less comfortable lives in emigration, as Russia was treading its bloody path from the civil war to Stalin's collectivization.

    Some participants of the February events (like the more moderate Duma member Vasily Shulgin) outlived even the 1941-1945 Great Patriotic War with Germany – a dramatic "remake" of World War I, which the February revolution is widely believed to have prevented Russia from winning. Shulgin later returned to the Soviet Union, where he spent many years in jail and exile until 1976 (he died at the age of 98), bitterly condemning his Duma colleagues' actions in February 1917.

    Was the February revolution inevitable?

    During Soviet times even doubting the "historically predetermined character" of the events of 1917 was officially prohibited. Interestingly, the liberal press and academia in Russia still clings to this "fatalist" view. Among those who disagree one may name Boris Mironov, history professor at St. Petersburg State University and an author of several books on the Russian revolution of 1917 (the latest trend is to view both the February and the October coups as parts of the same process).

    "There was no inevitability behind the events of February 1917," Mironov said in a phone interview. "Russia was not in a military or economic crisis, the food situation in St. Petersburg was not nice, but it was not worse than in Paris, which had no revolutions after all. Russia's Achilles foot was public opinion, which had been carefully shaped for years by the irresponsible radical intellectuals."

    In the opinion of Mironov, the czar's main mistake was the lack of attention to public opinion inside the country, where by January 1917 an "anti-monarchist consensus" formed itself. It was formed on the basis of rumors about "treason" on the part of the empress, her "spiritual father" Grigory Rasputin and other members of the so-called "camarilla."

    Investigations by both the Provisional Government and the Soviet Chekists later never found any traces of this "treason." In a phone interview, Mironov expressed hope that modern Russian authorities would learn the lessons from 1917, paying adequate attention to public opinion and developing healthy pluralism in the political system, making it more flexible and better prepared to sustain all kinds of pressures.

    The views expressed in this article are solely those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official position of Sputnik.

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    • R30soarskyes
      shine shine , shine kudasai
    • avatar
      Mr Babich the article can be called fake history
    • avatar
      The Rothschild-Illuminati axis, through their network of banksters and Freemasons, controlled the Bolshevik operation.

      • In February 1917, an artificially induced bread shortage accompanied orchestrated rioting in Petrograd (then Russia’s capital). In a “false flag,” the mobs were machine-gunned from hidden positions; the casualties were blamed on the Czar.

      • British agents bribed Russian soldiers to mutiny and join the rioting. White Russian General Arsene de Goulevitch wrote: “I have been told that over 21 million rubles were spent by Lord Milner in financing the Russian Revolution.” 33rd degree Freemason Alfred Milner was a Rothschild front man.

      • Several Russian generals were Freemasons who betrayed the Czar under Masonic instructions.

      • Russians thought the provisional government, established under Alexander Kerensky after the Czar’s fall, meant future democracy. But Kerensky, Grand Secretary of Russia’s Grand Orient, was “phase one” of communist takeover. His government pardoned all political exiles – green light for return to Russia of fellow Freemasons Lenin and Trotsky.

      • Jacob Schiff and Federal Reserve founder Paul Warburg ran Kuhn, Loeb & Co. – the Rothschilds’ New York banking satellite. Schiff supplied $20 million in gold to Trotsky, who sailed from New York with 275 other terrorists on a passport obtained through pressure the bankers put on the Wilson administration.

      • In Germany, Warburg’s brother Max helped persuade the government to provide millions to Lenin and allow him to cross Germany with other revolutionaries in a special train. The Germans agreed because the Bolsheviks promised to remove Russia from the raging First World War after taking power.

      • The Bolsheviks succeeded because they had what other revolutionaries (e.g., Mensheviks) lacked – limitless cash. By May 1917, Pravda already had a circulation of 300,000.

      • It is a myth that Kerensky and the Bolsheviks were adversaries. Kerensky received $1 million from Jacob Schiff. During summer 1917, when it was revealed the Bolsheviks were on Germany’s payroll – treason during wartime – Kerensky protected them. When the Bolsheviks moved to seize power that autumn, he declined the option of requesting troops to preserve the government. Lenin and Trotsky gave Kerensky money and safe passage out. He died wealthy in 1970 in New York, where the Russian Orthodox Church refused him burial services.
    • avatar
      and to be reading many more such articles in this centennial year.
    • avatar
      giorgoskaz11in reply toflorsolitaria(Show commentHide comment)
      florsolitaria, the epitome of fake or twisted historical events
    • avatar
      Dimitry, I hope you understand that you have no clue about Socialism and Communism as you do not differentiate between them and you do not understand that Communism is not a system but is approximation to the most just and humane system. You are too poorly educated in this matter to really understand it. As a child educated in post Socialism you were told only the worst about socialism and that is your premise.

      If you would take a bit of time and study history of so called "Marxism" which is in reality Historical Materialism than you would understand that as we have today so called capitalist systems which are nothing else than Feudal or even Slave systems, but they even dare to declare themselves as democratic systems. That tells us that it does not matter what someone thinks about himself and how it declares itself but all that matters and shows the real face are the deeds and actions taken.

      Germany 1936 - 1945 was ruled by a party which had a name "Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP or National Socialist German Workers' Party and now ask yourself how would you call this Nazi party as socialist party (left wing) or extreme imperialistic capitalist party (right wing). Even to you that should be very clear as we Germans know how to distinguish who is what.

      I would suggest you to find original book written by Engels: Herrn Eugen Dührings Umwälzung der Wissenschaft, or in English: "Herr Eugen Dühring's Revolution in Science" this book is also known as Anti-Dühring. Beside that I would suggest you to find and read about Materialistic philosophy called Dialectics where if you study carefully it will open up your eyes and you will start to understand the world in reality as it is without swinging and twisting the truth and facts about events that are happening or are about to happen in future.

      Do not touch Stalin's book "Diamat" which is his version of Dialectics as he needed some explanation and justification for his deeds. It would be advisable to read 3rd, last section of Das Capital which has been finished by Engels as he mistakenly understood that Das Capital is ultimate philosophical book and in reality it was just perfect analysis and critics of capitalism.

      No hard feelings and no offence as none is meant, it is just that I am getting older and more tiered of all this modern spitting on something that is inevitable, but now have neither wish nor time to write about it as it would be as an essay of couple of hundreds of pages.
    • choticastilein reply togiorgoskaz11(Show commentHide comment)
      giorgoskaz11, Agree.
    • choticastilein reply toflorsolitaria(Show commentHide comment)
      florsolitaria, Thank you for spelling out reality -- Why can the full truth not be told. A spade, should be called a spade-- nothing hidden or cloaked with what is the so-called political correctness!-- Shameful.
      Russia was plundered and raped by, as you say, the global bankster gangsters, who given half the chance today, would attempt to do it all over again. The genocide of the Russian people which followed, remains unequalled in human history and actually these infamous bankster gangsters, always at Russia's throat, are again bent on her destruction.

      Furthermore, people all over the world should know the real truth and nothing but the truth-- of Russia's bloody and bitter history, the worst suffering, to which any nation has ever been condemned!

      Actually awareness of Russia's horrifically painful history, would be of greatest service to humankind-- return us to moral sobriety and spiritual endeavour, qualities which today is almost completely dead in many western and western aligned countries. .

      But never again will it happen by the hands of foreigners, assisted by domestic traitors! God be with this magnificent country and the brave and enduring Peoples of Russia.
    • choticastilein reply tomichael(Show commentHide comment)
      michael, You should consider checking out the link provided by Florsolitaria-- very worthwhile. Have not read it yet, but I am always seeking the work of committed to truth researchers-- especially of Russian history, but also general global history, because tragically, humankind has been sold fairy stories all the way down the river. Many, many people have awoken to this!
    • avatar
      armorin reply tochoticastile(Show commentHide comment)
      choticastile, you are so right there. Russia's History, past, stand prominent in the world. I am also convinced that this time around, no foreigners will control Russia.
    • avatar
      michaelin reply tochoticastile(Show commentHide comment)
      choticastile, I have had a brief look at the link and it seems that there are a number of interesting errors. I need to take further time to look at his sources as there are larger questions to arise from this. Thanks for drawing my attention to it. :)
    • avatar
      Thank you, for your “Excellent & Educational Article.”
    • avatar
      Thank you Lenin for smashing the "Prison House Of Nations". Thank you Stalin for defeating the Nazi force. Remember Lenin was assassinated by a Zionist female creature. Also remember that the Russian people defeated 23 Armies who invaded Russia to destroy the revalution.
    • avatar
      giorgoskaz11in reply toslimyfox(Show commentHide comment)
      slimyfox, Babich will be happy to re-establish Char one day lol, don't loose your time
    • avatar
      florsolitariain reply toleyshon9(Show commentHide comment)
      Lenin died of syphilis, and he was an international criminal supported by international criminals.
    • avatar
      florsolitaria --- do not try rewriting history. "Assassination attempt[edit]

      Vladimir Pchelin's depiction of the assassination attempt
      On 30 August 1918, Lenin spoke at the Hammer and Sickle, a factory in Moscow. As Lenin left the building and before he entered his car, Kaplan called out to him. When Lenin turned towards her, she fired three shots with a Browning pistol.[1] One bullet passed through Lenin's coat, the other two struck him: one passing through his neck, puncturing part of his left lung, and stopping near his right collarbone; the other lodging in his left shoulder.[1][5]

      Lenin was taken back to his living quarters at the Kremlin. He feared there might be other plotters planning to kill him and refused to leave the security of the Kremlin to seek medical attention. Doctors were brought in to treat him but were unable to remove the bullets outside of a hospital. Despite the severity of his injuries, Lenin survived. However, Lenin's health never fully recovered from the attack and it is believed[by whom?] the shooting contributed to the strokes that incapacitated and later killed him in 1924.". the dirty little Zionist B---h was reported to have used poison bullets as well. Lenin was a great man..
    • Drain the swamp
      be brave and say it, it all boild down ONE word - JOO ! like putin did or are you one of them? BTW-Sputnik appears to have been taken over by the davidovitch whilst we are sleeping?
    • Rick Sanchezin reply toslimyfox(Show commentHide comment)
      slimyfox, wow, thanks!
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