LUKoil, Gazprom Neft, TNK-BP Holding, Rosneft and Surgutneftegaz have been accused of price fixing, in violation of competition laws.
On July 15, the service launched proceedings against the companies over high prices for aviation and diesel fuel.
"If violations are confirmed, we will oblige companies to conclude direct contracts with aviation fuel buyers," the Vesti FM station quoted the service's deputy chief, Anatoly Golomolzin, as saying.
The antimonopoly service earlier accused the companies of abusing their dominant market positions through "establishing a monopolistically high price on wholesale markets of aviation kerosene and diesel fuel in the Russian Federation."
The service said on Monday it would soon launch a number of investigations and adopt antimonopoly measures regarding the aviation fuel market.
Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin earlier urged the antimonopoly service to adopt measures to curb price rises for aviation fuel.