Using an underwater robot and a manned submarine, the expedition led by Cindy Van Dover, director of the Duke University Marine Laboratory, found the shipwreck in deep-sea waters on July 12.
"This is an exciting find, and a vivid reminder that even with major advances in our ability to access and explore the ocean, the deep sea holds its secrets close," Van Dover said.
Artifacts from the ship's wreckage include glass bottles, an iron chain, an unglazed pottery jug and navigational instruments, such as a metal compass, according to Duke University.
Photos of the artifacts were examined by archaeologists who suggested that the wreck may date back to the late 18th or early 19th century.
The marine scientists, who were on board a vessel from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, used the Wood Hole's unmanned vehicle Sentry and the manned submarine Alvin to track the shipwreck.
"It's ironic to think we were exploring within 100 meters of the wreck site without an inkling it was there," Van Dover said.
The find has already been reported to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Marine Heritage Program, which is due to identify the shipwreck.