How US-Venezuela Escalation Unfolded From Sanctions to Backing Anti-Maduro Coup

© AFP 2022 / FEDERICO PARRAA woman and a girl walk in front of a graffiti of US Uncle Sam in Caracas on March 11, 2015
A woman and a girl walk in front of a graffiti of US Uncle Sam in Caracas on March 11, 2015 - Sputnik International
The Trump administration has officially recognised opposition figure Juan Guaido as the president of Venezuela and dismissed Nicolas Maduro’s inauguration as “illegitimate”. Maduro, on the other hand, hit back, saying that Washington has been trying to oust him.

Donald Trump, who once refused to “rule out a military option” in Venezuela, has been consistent with a hard-line approach towards the South American country under President Nicolas Maduro.

READ MORE: Things to Know About Venezuelan Opposition Leader Recognised as President by US

In light of the presidential crisis, Sputnik has summed up the key points of the escalated tensions between Washington and Caracas since Maduro’s re-election in May 2018.

US Reacts to Maduro’s Re-Election

Following Nicolas Maduro’s re-election for a second six-year term on 20 May 2018, both US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and Vice President Mike Pence slammed it as a “sham election”.

“Venezuela’s election was a sham ¬- neither free nor fair. The illegitimate result of this fake process is a further blow to the proud democratic tradition of Venezuela”, Pence said in a statement.

Juan Guaido, president of National Assembly, shows marks on his wrists, which he says are from handcuffs, to supporters at a rally in Caraballeda, Venezuela, Sunday, Jan. 13, 2019. The new head of Venezuela's increasingly defiant congress was pulled from his vehicle and briefly detained by police Sunday, a day after the U.S. backed him assuming the presidency as a way out of the country's deepening crisis. Guaido's wife Fabiana Rosales stands next to him, right. (AP Photo/Fernando Llano) - Sputnik International
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President Donald Trump, for his part, called for Maduro to “restore democracy, hold free and fair elections, release all political prisoners immediately and unconditionally, and end the repression and economic deprivation of the Venezuelan people”.

In order to choke off the country’s financing, President Donald Trump slapped another set of sanctions on Venezuela, having issued an executive order restricting its ability to liquidate state assets and debt in the US.

The South American country’s foreign minister dismissed the restrictions as illegal, saying they were “madness, barbaric and in absolute contradiction to international law”.

Crisis-Hit Venezuela is Threat to US Security – Pence

In June 2018, Vice President Pence said that the crisis in the South American country jeopardised US security and countries in the region, and that Washington would not stand “idly by while Venezuela collapses”.

“It is remarkable to think that, once one of the most vibrant countries and economies in the Western hemisphere, Venezuela is now essentially a failed state and the Venezuelan people are suffering”.

War of Words in Wake of Maduro Assassination Attempt

During a military event on 4 August, Maduro survived what government officials described as an assassination attempt. Several drones detonated close to the presidential podium during Maduro’s address, and the explosions were later claimed by an obscure Caracas paramilitary group describing themselves as the “National Movement of Soldiers in T-shirts”.

READ MORE: EU Supports 'Re-Establishment of Democracy' in Venezuela — Macron

While Maduro called on Trump to reveal the perpetrators’ links…

"I want the US government and the new government of Colombia to unveil all the links of the accomplices in the attack, residing in the state of Florida, on the territory of the United States and Colombia. With faith in the goodwill of the government of President Donald Trump, and that he will not allow the killing of civil and military leaders of countries like Venezuela to be plotted on US territory".

…US National Security Advisor John Bolton was quick to reassure the international community that Washington was not involved in the blasts. He also suggested that Maduro’s government was behind the explosions as part of alleged efforts to consolidate power and clamp down on opposition, pointing to the country’s wrecked economy and subsequent unrest.

“It could be a lot of things, from a pretext set up by the Maduro regime itself to something else. If the government of Venezuela has hard information that they want to present to us that would show a potential violation of US criminal law, we will take a serious look at it".

READ MORE: Iran Blames Situation in Venezuela on US Meddling in Caracas' Internal Affairs

Two months later, Maduro claimed that the US had instructed Colombia to assassinate him:

"I am saying this to the entire world — the order to kill Maduro was given to the [Colombian] government in Bogota from the White House that wants to kill me".

In December, he also lashed out at Bolton, in particular, claiming that the White House adviser had spearheaded the plan:

"John Bolton leads the plan to unleash violence and conduct a coup to introduce a transitional government. Bolton is preparing a plan of my assassination. He is training, in various places, mercenary and paramilitary units' forces jointly with Colombia, whose president Ivan Duque is an accomplice of this plan”.

More Sanctions, Calls to Restore Democracy

In September, Washington targeted Caracas with another round of sanction on Maduro’s wife and six officials in his “inner circle”, including the vice president and defence minister. The restrictive measures also included blocking a $20 million private jet identified as belonging to the front-man of a senior official.

READ MORE: Russia Warns US Against Military Interference in Venezuela's Affairs

Delivering his speech to the UN General Assembly, Donald Trump called on “the nations gathered here to join us in calling for the restoration of democracy in Venezuela”.

“Today, socialism has bankrupted the oil-rich nation and driven its people into abject poverty”, he said.

Maduro, in turn, has consistently said he Venezuela is the victim of an “economic war” led by the US and its allies, and that Washington is orchestrating attempts to oust him as part of a broader offensive against Latin American leaders challenging US hegemony.

US Backing Coup D’Etat

After Maduro was sworn in earlier this month, Pompeo slammed the inauguration as “illegitimate”…

“The Maduro regime is illegitimate and the United States will continue… to work diligently to restore a real democracy to that country. We are very hopeful that we can be force for good to allow the region to come together to deliver that".

…while Bolton said that the May election was not “free, fair or credible:

"The United States does not recognize Venezuelan dictator Nicolas Maduro’s illegitimate claim to power. His 'election' in May 2018 was viewed internationally as not free, fair or credible. We hold the illegitimate Maduro regime directly responsible for the safety of all Venezuelans who cry out demanding to freely choose their leaders. We will continue to use the full weight of United States economic and diplomatic power to press for the restoration of a Venezuelan democracy that reverses the current constitutional crisis”.

Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro - Sputnik International
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The Trump administration immediately supported the decision of Juan Guaido, president of Venezuela’s disempowered National Assembly, to challenge Maduro’s presidency.

As Guaido declared himself interim president of Venezuela on 23 January, both Trump and Vice President Pence recognised him as the “rightful” head of the country.

On top of that, US authorities have been urging Maduro to step aside in favour of Guaido, “reflecting the will of the Venezuelan people”.

Maduro, on the other hand, didn’t mince words when blasting Guaido as “an American agent”, and accused the US of attempting to stage a coup.

"He is a puppet, an American agent, created by… the US intelligence agencies, it is them who control him".

The Venezuelan president also announced that Caracas was breaking diplomatic and political relations with Washington, and gave US diplomats 72 hours to leave the South American country.

READ MORE: Venezuela's Supreme Court Disavows Guaido as Congress Head

As of today, Chile, Canada, Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Peru, Honduras, Costa Rica, Panama, Paraguay, Guatemala have followed the US’ suit and recognised Guaido as Venezuela’s interim president.

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