The rocket will put the Progress MS-10 space freighter carrying 2.5 metric tons of supplies on a trajectory toward the International Space Station (ISS).
The Progress spacecraft is expected to reach the ISS in two days and is scheduled to dock with the space outpost at 22:30 Moscow time (19:30 GMT) on Sunday. It will be docked with the ISS until March 2019.
A new Soyuz-FG launch comes after a rocket carrying Russian cosmonaut Alexei Ovchinin and NASA astronaut Nick Hague malfunctioned about two minutes after the liftoff on October 11, sending their escape capsule into a steep fall back to Earth. They were not harmed.
Russia suspended all space launches following the incident.