"Attacks by armed terrorist groups on the towns of Jisr al-Shughour…and earlier on Idlib, Kassab and Aleppo, had been carried out with logistical and fire support of the Turkish army, which is direct aggression by Turkey against Syria," the ministry said in a statement posted on Sana website.
Damascus called on the UN Security Council to take action against Ankara in two identically written letters, where it argued that an al-Qaeda-linked group had received training and weapons from the Turkish government.
Saudi Arabia and Qatar were also implicated in the letters for providing support and "facilitating the infiltration of around 5,000 foreign terrorists into Syrian territories."
Syria has been plagued by renewed attacks from militants over the past week.
Idlib, which had been under the control of the so-called Jaysh Fateh army since late March, has been declared a Nusra Front stronghold.
UN officials said late last month that ongoing conflicts in the Idlib province have displaced some 30,000 people, while the four-year-long internal conflict has claimed over 220,000 lives across Syria.
Reports of Turkish border guards detaining foreigners attempting to use it as a transit point to join the Islamic State appear regularly in the media, however authorities are largely unable to cope with the influx of would-be fighters.
Turkish officials say they need more timely information from Western intelligence agencies to curb radicalized foreign nationals', including an alarming number of Europeans, attempts to cross the Turkish-Syrian border.