Lyubov Drozdova, the head judge at the Samara Regional Court, was shot in the stomach near her house on Tuesday morning while getting into her car.
"Lyubov Drozdova is in intensive care, she has come round and is on a respirator," said Oksana Yefimenko, the press secretary of the Samara health department.
Although Drozdova underwent a five-hour life-saving operation, surgeons were unable to remove the bullet, a vital piece of evidence for investigators.
Drozdova had been involved in a series of high-profile political cases, including lawsuits against the regional election commission and attempts to dismiss a candidate in a Samara mayoral election, as well as a number of financial suits.
President Dmitry Medvedev has ordered General Prosecutor Yury Chaika to oversee the investigation.