The decree was signed by Putin on May 5, two days before he stepped down as president, and its text was posted on the Kremlin website on Thursday.
On March 3, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 1803, imposing a third round of sanctions against Iran over its refusal to halt uranium enrichment.
Under the new sanctions, the accounts of certain Iranian companies and banks will be frozen, and goods leaving and entering the Islamic Republic will be subjected to inspections. In addition, travel bans have been imposed on five Iranian officials involved in nuclear projects. The resolution also bans the sale of 'dual-use' items that could be utilized by Iran for military purposes.
Iran has 90 days to comply with the new resolution.
The diplomatic standoff between Iran and the West, which at times has threatened to take on a military nature, began almost six years ago over suspicions that Tehran was secretly developing atomic weapons.
Tehran has always maintained that it needs nuclear technology for electricity generation only. Two previous rounds of UN sanctions were imposed on Tehran in December 2006 and March 2007.
Iran denounced the current and previous resolutions as a violation of international law. It also stated that it would not comply with the new resolution.
Tehran also refused to continue talks with the Iran-Six, a group of international mediators comprising the five permanent UN Security Council members and Germany, and said it would negotiate only with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).