Progress M-62, piggybacked on a Soyuz-U carrier rocket, lifted off from the Baikonur space center in Kazakhstan on Sunday.
It has delivered 1.26 metric tons of food and water for the crew, as well as fuel to maintain the ISS's orbit, and other cargo and research equipment, including Christmas presents for the crew.
Russia's Progress M-61 cargo spacecraft, which was detached from the ISS on December 22, will be used as a platform for technical experiments, mission control said earlier.
"The spacecraft, which is at the end of its service life, will not be buried at the 'spacecraft cemetery' in the Pacific, but will be sent on an independent voyage," it said.
The cargo ship, like its predecessor, Progress M-60, will be used for experimental purposes before being allowed to burn up in the Earth's atmosphere.