A total of 147 members of the Federation Council voted in favor of President Vladimir Putin's candidate, with one vote against and no abstention. A majority of 91 votes had been required.
Vladimir Ustinov, Chaika's predecessor, was relieved of his post June 2.
Chaika said that there would be personnel changes in his agency, but, as he told the Federation Council before his candidacy was endorsed, that there would be no personnel purges.
"The majority of the people working in prosecutors offices are decent people," Chaika said, adding that he favored ensuring that the offices worked transparently.
Chaika, who was justice minister until today, also told the upper chamber that he would make human rights a priority.
"It [human rights protection] is the backbone of the system," Chaika said. "The level of people's education in human right protection is low and people face the arbitrariness of local authorities one on one."
Chaika, 55, had a long service record with the Prosecutor General's Office. He was Deputy Prosecutor General in 1995-1999 and served as acting Prosecutor General in 1999 under ex-President Boris Yeltsin.